Tag Archives: Geology

Where are Sapphires found ?

  • Sapphires are mined as early as 7th century BC in India.
  • Blue sapphires are mainly found in India, Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand.
  • Blue Sapphire stone is also called “neelam ratna” in hindi.
  • It is acknowledged to fastest and strongest gemstone among all the other gemstones.

Sapphire Map of World



Blue Sapphire Facts

Sapphire Mineral

What is Uluru Ayers Rock made of ?


  • Uluru is a huge chunk of rock, known as a monolith, set the middle of Australia.
  • Uluru rock is composed of arkose, a coarse grained sandstone rich in the mineral feldspar. The sandy sediment, which hardened to form this arkose, was eroded from high mountains composed largely of granite.
  • The 300 million-year-old rock is comprised of sand, feldspar (various crystalline minerals) and rock, and originally hailed from a sea floor. A large chunk is above ground today (348m), and the flat top and grooved sides are a result of weathering. Uluru was discovered by William Gosse in the 1800s, who named it after the Chief Secretary to South Australia, Henry Ayers.
  • Uluru is the Aboriginal and official name. Ayers Rock is the most commonly used name, especially outside Australia.


  • The intriguing sculpted shapes, valleys and ridges, caves, potholes and plunge pools are the result of the last few hundreds of millions of years of erosion. The flaky surface is due to chemical decomposition.

Uluru description

Uluru - How Big is Uluru

Uluru Ayers Rock, Australia

Uluru Ayers Map

Why are the Oceans Salty ?

  • The oceans cover about 70 percent of the Earth’s surface.
  • Most of Earth’s water is 97 percent salt water that is found in oceans. Only 3% is fresh water.
  • Salt Water is filled with salt and other minerals.
  • Salt in the ocean comes from rocks on land. The rain that falls on the land contains some dissolved carbon dioxide from the surrounding air. This causes the rainwater to be slightly acidic due to carbonic acid (which forms from carbon dioxide and water).

18 - Why is the Ocean Salty

Salty Ocean

Why is the Ocean Salty

Why is the sea salty - Elements in Rivers and Seas

Sea-Surface Salinity (PSU)


How was the Grand Canyon Created ?

Colorado River Erosion

  • The Grand Canyon is one of the seven natural wonders of the world and one of our planet’s most astounding accomplishments. It is located in Arizona, United States of America.
  • The iconic Grand Canyon is carved by the copper-colored Colorado River, the colorful rock layers record billions of years of history and hide many unique species.
  • It was formed by the immense, erosive power of the Colorado River, which 6 million years ago, has carved its 1450 miles way from the Rocky Mountains to the Gulf of California, deep into the Colorado Plateau.
  • Other forces that contributed to the Canyon’s formation are Water – Vulcanism Continental Drift – WindClimate.



Grand Canyon - sedimentary formations

Grand Canyon Formation

Grand Canyon Layers of Rock

Grand Canyon

When was Niagara Falls discovered ? by Who ?


  • First discovered in 1678, by French explorer Father Louis Hennepin (1626-1705), Niagara Falls was one of America’s first icons, luring explorers, daredevils and millions of visitors with its untamed beauty, thundering roar and tremendous power.
  • During a 1678 expedition, Father Hennepin was overwhelmed by the size and significance of Niagara Falls. When he returned to France, Hennepin published an account of his travels in “A New Discovery.”
  • Niagara Falls are located on the border of Ontario, Canada and New York, USA. Niagara Falls are made up of 3 waterfalls, the American Falls, the Bridal Veil Falls and the Horseshoe Falls
Spectacular rainbows at Canadian side of Niagara Falls

Spectacular rainbows at Canadian side of Niagara Falls

Father Louis Hennepin    Father Louis Hennepin - A New Discovery Book

Father Louis Hennepin - Niagara Falls

Niagara Falls Map

Niagara Falls - Erosion of the Falls

Niagara Falls - Boat

Why Do Volcanoes Erupt ?

Density and Pressure

  • A volcano is a mountain that forms when magma reaches the surface of the Earth.
  • Volcanoes erupt because of density and pressure.
  • 6 types of volcanoes : Ash-cinder Volcano – Caldera Volcano – Dome Volcano – Fissure Volcano – Composite Volcanoes – Shield Volcano.
  • Volcanoes can be active, dormant or extinct.
  • Volcanic eruptions can send ash high into the air, over 17 miles above the Earth’s surface.
  • Volcanoes can grow quickly.
  • There are about 1500 active volcanoes worldwide.
  • The word volcano originally comes from the name of the Roman god of fire, Vulcan.


Volcano Structure

Why Do Volcanoes Erupt

Volcanoes - 4 Dominant Factors            Volcanoes - Pros & Cons

Types of VolcanoesVolcano 2     Volcano Inside